Résumé (Français et/ou Anglais) :
The semiconductor compounds containing multiple quantum wells (MQW) present remarkable optical properties adapted to the realization of the optoelectronic devices being able to be used in optical systems of telecommunications. The association of these artificial materials with other functions (integrated lens lets, active Bragg reflectors, surface emitting laser diodes…) realized starting from the semiconductors III-V contributes to the development of new systems suitable for the use of optics in the field of optical telecommunications, and in particular systems of telecommunication by optical fibers. To this end, the excellent knowledge of the III-V semiconductors gives the centered fast one to the development of optoelectronics.
This work consists to study and optimize the physical parameters of the structure (AlGaInAs/InP): Applications to the lasers diode. We started with the study of structural and optoelectronic properties of compounds AlAs, GaAs, and InAs, and their ternary AlGaAs, AlInAs andInGaAs, and the quaternary (AlGaInAs/InP), and this with an aim of studying and of optimizing a laser diode with quantum wells containing AlGaInAs/InP .For this purpose, we employed the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in the Wien2k code to determine the various properties of these materials. We used the software "Mathcad", to graphically determine the optimal values of the intrinsic and extrinsic values of the structure AlGaInAs/InP, and this with an aim of having a very high maximum gain and a minimal threshold current. And at the end, we exploited the found results to propose a structure with single quantum well (SQW) and a structure with multi quantum wells (MQW).